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Aryaman Panda

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Atomic Structure

CHAPTER TWO

Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment

Ernst Rutherford conducted the Gold Foil experiment to prove the assumptions made by JJ Thompson and thereby propose a model for the structure of the Atom.

But the results were contrary to his expectations.

Apparatus:

 

atom

 

Uses of the various equipments in the apparatus:

Alpha Particles: These are dipositive Helium atoms, to be clear Helium atoms whose both the electrons have been snatched away, this makes it highly unstable and can cause you cancer by destroying your genetic matter.  You would not want it in your bookshelf, or would you?

Lead Box: The only substance dense enough yet cheap, that can stop α-particles from going helter-skelter. FYI: It’s poisonous, not to be consumed.

Gold Foil: Gold is the really heavy element and comparatively cheap and stable with respect to other heavy, solid metals. A heavy element is ideal as it has a bigger nucleus.

ZnS Screen: Zinc Sulphide is a phosphorescent material and creates sparks when it comes in contact with highly charged particles (here α-particles). It helps to observe the result of the experiment.

Charged Poles: Since the α-particles are positive the positively charged poles help to concentrate and fire the α-particles in a straight path by repelling it from every direction. (I suppose you get my point)

Assumptions

 

  • Rutherford based his idea on Thomson’s and had assumed that most of the α-particles would pass right through the foil without much disturbance.
  • The contents of an atom are evenly spread.

 

 

Observation and Results

 

  • Most of the α-particles went straight through the foil but a few of them did deflect and 1 in 12,000 completely reflected back, this implies that the contents of an atom is not evenly spread and,
  • The positive part of the atom is concentrated in the centre and there is a lot of empty space around it.
  • Thus the model was named as planetary model

 

 

220px-rutherford_atomic_planetary_model-svg
Rutherford’s Model Of Atom


Atomic Model of Bohr is available in detail in next chapter.


ARYAMAN

any doubt – feel free to ask in the comment box

suggestions can be provided in the comment section


FOR MORE KNOWLEDGE VIEW CHAPTER THREE OF ‘ATOMIC STRUCTURE’

 

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‘Thud’, What’s Hypnic Jerk?

 

You’re flying by the mountains, and you feel like you’re gonna reach paradise, the happiest abode in the universe, when suddenly- you hit upon a flock of birds and crash to the ground. You wake on our bed and realise that you never were flying.

We have many times felt like falling down when asleep but actually not. Well no, this aint any sorcery. Well rather it’s more common in children and stressed men than any normal guy.

This falling-down-feeling-from-bed-but-not-actually-fallen is called a Hypnic Jerk or hypnagogic jerk or sleep start or  sleep twitch or night start or jump is an involuntary movement (movement of muscles without you wanting it to move) is due to a minor ‘misconception’ of the brain.

When your stressed up muscles are trying go to rest & slacken and send relaxation signals to the brain and your never resting brain misunderstands these signals to be that of imbalance and falling off. The brain in-turn to save ‘itself’ (the brain is the most selfish and the most dependent organ) sends signals to the muscles in an attempt to regain balance.

Well you see even the brain can be fooled. So how smart do you think you are?

Phi – The Divine Number

The number (1+√5)/2 ≈  1.618033988749894848204586834… referred to as φ(Phi) also known as the Divine Number (in ancient times) or the Golden Ratio (modern mathematics). φ had fascinated men since time immemorial. This number is said to be the fundamental used by God to build the Universe. Why? Well read the following and you’ll understand!

The number φ is considered to be a very important number in art. φ is generally considered the most beautiful number in the universe.
φ was derived from the Fibonacci sequence-a progression famous not only because the sum of adjacent terms equalled the next term, but because the quotients of adjacent terms possessed the astonishing property of approaching the number 1.618 or φ!

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34 …   (1/1≈ 1.6, 2/1≈ 1.6, 3/2 ≈ 1.6, 5/3 ≈ 1.6)

WORDPRESS
Fibonacci Sequence

Despite φ’s seemingly mystical mathematical origins, the truly mind-boggling aspect of PHI was its role as a fundamental building block in nature. Plants, animals, and even human beings all possessed dimensional properties that adhered with eerie exactitude to the ratio of φ:1 or the Golden Ratio.
If you divide the number of female bees by the number of male bees in any beehive in the world, you always get the same number… 1.618.

The ratio of each nautilus spiral’s diameter to the next is 1.618.

Sunflower Spirals
Sunflower Spirals

Sunflower seeds grow in opposing spirals. The ratio of each rotation’s diameter to the next is
1.618.
Measure the distance from the tip of your head to the floor. Then divide that by the distance from your belly button to the floor or measure the distance from your shoulder to your fingertips, and then divide it by the distance from your elbow to your fingertips or hip to floor divided by knee to floor. Finger joints. Toes. Spinal divisions. All lead to φ
When the ancients discovered PHI, they were certain they had stumbled across God’s building blocks for the world, and they worshipped Nature because of that. And one can understand why. God’s hand is evident in Nature.

body

φ can be found in the architectural dimensions of the Greek Parthenon, the pyramids of Egypt, the United Nations Building in New York, the organizational structures of Mozart’s sonatas, Beethovan’s Fifth Symphony, as well as the works of Bartok, Debussy, and Schubert.

 

Five intersecting lines that form a pointed star… the symbol of a pentagram, is one of the most powerful images you will ever see. Also known as a pentacle, as the ancients called it, this symbol is considered both divine and magical by many cultures.

Pentacle (Pentagram)
Pentacle (Pentagram)

The ratio of line segments in a pentacle all equal PHI, making this symbol the ultimate expression of the Divine Proportion. For this reason, the five-pointed star has always been the symbol for beauty and perfection associated with the goddess and the sacred feminine.

 

Thanks to:

Wikipedia

Da Vinci Code

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Congruence in Triangles

The following link explains the different congruence criteria for triangles:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_5ZswHKMyPDQU9Sc1lFYnk4TWs/view?usp=docslist_api

Presentations related to derivation of these rules will soon be released.

Cell Cycle and Division

The following link is about Mitosis in animals:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B_5ZswHKMyPDeW82Rzk2UFNYTjA/view?usp=sharing

You’ll find a .ppt file by following this link.

Density And Buoyancy

Well this ain’t about density=mass/volume stuffs; every bloke knows that. This is about the deep meaning of it and Why the hell is this happening and…….. forget it, you’re soon gonna find out:

Density

Density is mass upon volume (ρ = m/v). I know what you’re thinking but, you know, it’s the basics.It’s a property of matter.

Well to be frank density is nothing but amount of stuffs in a particular volume. This definition must be much more soothing than the one given above.

Buoyancy

Buoyancy is a simple puny force which works when there is a liquid, an insoluble solid and Gravity.

Look here, everyone is in tough competition in nature, everything. When there is beaker filled with water, it only wants to go as down as possible (all thanks to Gravity!) and will not let anything come in their path until its opponent is really strong.

So when you drop a hollow plastic ball it tries to go deeper into the water but water being denser than the hollow ball manages to defeat it and stops it from drowning whereas pushes it upwards, this upward force is Buoyancy. Yet the ball is not that weak and manages to be partly submerged in water. If you watch closely, you would find the tip of ball is submerged into the water. This means a part of the water has been displaced by the ball.

Well here are few points everyone must know related to Buoyancy:

  • The volume of the part of the ball submerged in water is equal to the volume of water displaced
  • Total mass of the ball equals the mass of the water displaced!
  • The upward force of Buoyancy is only possible when there is a downward Gravitational force
  • The force of Buoyancy depends on the density of both the liquid and the solid.
  • Weight of the  ball equals to the buoyant  force exerted by the displaced liquid
  • Weight of the displaced liquid equals Buoyancy Force

Types of Buoyancy

Density of liquid > Density of solid

  • The Solid floats
  • The buoyancy at the most stable position (i.e if you Leave the apparatus undisturbed) is that of neutral buoyancy[1].
  • Buoyancy force > weight of the object.(continue reading before coming to any conclusion)
  • Well. Didn’t we just read earlier that Bf   (Buoyant  Force) equals the Weight of the object? Then what is this nuisance? I’ll clear your doubt. The above given case is not for neutral buoyancy. It’s when you drop a wooden log from a height and it plunges deep into the water. At that depth, Bf   is greater than the Weight[2]  of the object and the Bf pushes it upwards until it equals the Weight of the object i.e until it attains Neutral Buoyancy.(read the heading-“comparison between the types of Buoyancy” to clearly understand it.)

Density of liquid < Density of solid

  • The whole body gets submerged into the liquid
  • The volume of the entire body equals volume of water displaced.[3]
  • Weight of the body is more than the B.
  • The body drowns to the deepest point possible since change in depth has nothing to do with volume of water displaced (unless and until it’s completely submerged.This comparison cannot be made between buoyancy type 1 and buoyancy type 2)

Density of liquid = Density of Solid

  • The entire body is submerged
  • The volume of the entire body equals volume of water displaced.
  • The body drowns but hovers in any position but completely submerged. If you place it in any position it’d hover in the position you had assigned it, this situation is called Neutral Buoyancy[4]
  • Neutral Buoyancy is observed in fishes and  Hot air balloons.

Comparison between the types of Buoyancy

Type 1

It’s said that the density of liquid is more than that of the solid. But this fact is not acceptable when the apparatus attains ‘stability’  and the solid is floating. This is only acceptable only when the solid is plunged deep into the liquid where the Bf is greater than the solid’s weight. As unbalanced external forces are acting on the solid and the net force being upward. The body moves up until it attains neutral buoyancy.

Type 2

The weight of water displaced = buoyant force and as the density of solid is more when compared to a liquid of same volume it’s weight would eventually be more[5]. So the solid would surely sink. Since at any depth the amount of water displaced would be the same and due to the action of unbalanced force the net force would be a downward movement.

Type 3

Since the density as well as volume is equal for both the solid and the liquid, eventually the mass would be constant. And if mass is constant then the weight and the buoyant force would be the same resulting in balanced forces. So if you submerge the solid completely anywhere inside the water it’d hover in the particular position since the net force is zero.

Calculation of the buoyant force

F=ma

=m/v  * v * a

=ρ*v*g

=ρvg

Where ρ= density of liquid (pronounced as ‘ro’  or ‘rho’) ,  v= volume of liquid displaced,  g=acceleration due to gravity

This can also be said as ρ= density of liquid,  v= volume of solid submerged,  g=acceleration due to gravity (since volume of liquid displaced equals volume of solid submerged) 


Bet you didn’t know 

The density of water is 1g/cm3 and that of ice is 0.9g/cm3. Therefore ice has density 90% that of water. If you observe a floating ice carefully, you’ll find 90% of it submerged in water. This holds good for other liquids and solids.  Want to know why ice floats on water? Check out this link: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=UukRgqzk-KE

By Aryaman


Footnotes

(1.) Neutral Buoyancy is a situation where the Bf equals Weight of the object.

(2.) You should be knowing that Weight is a force and is entirely different from mass,  rather weight depends on the mass of an object, since W=mg in which g is acceleration due to gravity so it can also be written as W=ma; since F=ma, Weight is a force.

(3.) Since on comparison with point 1 under the subtopic-“important points to know about buoyancy”, Volume of submerged part in this situation is the volume of the complete body since the entire body is submerged.
(4.) Neutral Buoyancy is observed when density of liquid = density of solid. But actually Neutral Buoyancy is when Bf equals Weight of the object.
DO NOT CONFUSE!

(5.) ρ=m/v and volume of both the solid and the liquid are equal (in type 2 volume of solid = volume of displaced liquid), therefore if density increases mass should increase.

If you have any doubt your free to ask in the comment section

Atomic Structure

CHAPTER ONE

My favourite subject is chemistry. Especially atomic structure. So what is an Atom? Atoms are the basic (atoms are made up of subatomic particles.) unit of matter. And matter is something that has mass and occupies space. Atoms are made up of subatomic particles (and other tinier particles-which isn’t that important) which are grouped into two major parts:

  • The Nucleus- it contains Protons which are positively charged and Neutrons which are neutral in charge. (those extra particles are in here too.)
  • Shells- or orbits are the path in which the third major part, Electron which contains negative charge, revolve around the nucleus, like planets revolving around the Sun.
The Basic Structure Of an Atom
The Basic Structure Of an Atom

Think: IF THE NUCLEUS CONTAINS POSITIVE CHARGED PARTICLES ONLY WHY DON’T THEY REPEL (like charges repel)  AND WHY DOESN’T THE ATOM SPLIT (OR DISINTEGRATE)?

ANSWER: The neutrons in an atom acts like nuclear cement. it holds the protons together even if they try to repel.


For Characteristics of Fundamental Particles click here .docx



Four different scientists produced their own ideas of the atoms’ structure. 

  • John Dalton
  • JJ Thompson
  • Ernest Rutherford
  • Neils Bohr

John Dalton
The Postulates of Dalton

  • All matter is made of indivisible and indestructible atoms which are very tiny. (partially correct, they are tiny but yet divisible-discovery of subatomic particles.)
  • All atoms of a given element are identical in their physical and chemical properties. (was later proven wrong, due to discovery of Isotopes)
  • Atoms of different elements differ in their physical and chemical properties.(was later proven wrong, due to the discovery of isobars)
  • Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds(later proven wrong, since they can combine in fractions.)
  • Chemical reactions consist of the combination, separation, or rearrangement of atoms.

JJ Thompson

As per his plum pudding model (there many names for this atomic model), Negatively charged particles are embedded in a Positive sphere.


Later proved wrong since this way electrons would fuse with the positive and the atom would cease to  be.


This way the Universe would collapse.


Ernest Rutherford

He conducted ‘the gold foil experiment’



Atomic Model of Rutherford is available in detail in next chapter.


ARYAMAN

any doubt – feel free to ask in the comment box


FOR MORE KNOWLEDGE VIEW CHAPTER TWO OF ‘ATOMIC STRUCTURE’

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